Kharkiv is the largest city in northeastern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Kharkiv region. The second largest city of Ukraine. Was the largest center of tank and tractor construction, and turbine construction and the third largest industrial, scientific and transportation center of the USSR after Moscow and Leningrad. In the second half of the XX century Kharkiv was the main transport hub of South-Eastern Europe. The modern city was founded in 1654 on the site of ancient settlement Kharkov, Polovtsian sometimes identified as the city of the XI century Sharukan either Hun city V century Harika. From December 1917 to February 1918 Kharkiv was the capital of the Ukrainian peoples Republic of Soviets, and from February to March 1918 the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, in March — June, 1919 December 19, 1919 to 24 June 1934 — the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In the city 142 research Institute, 45 higher educational institutions, including the University of Kharkov (fifth in the Russian Empire; founded in 1805) and the Polytechnical Institute (the second Polytechnic University of the Russian Empire; founded in 1885) study of 230 thousand students; sixteen museums, a town art gallery, six public theaters, eighty libraries. The city of Kharkov was awarded the order of Lenin and the October Revolution as well as the award of the Council of Europe. For the first time in the history of Ukraine July 8, 2013, the Kharkiv city Council gave the city the title "city of military glory". The local authority is of the Kharkiv city Council. In 2012, Kharkov was one of four Ukrainian cities hosting the championship of Europe on football 2012.